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ktrairatana | March 7, 2011 at 11:11 pmby
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Action of Alcohol
Alcohol, chemically known as ethyl alcohol, is a drug which slows down the CNS (central nervous system which part of the brain and spinal cord that control thinking, feeling and behaving). Alcohol initially appears to act as a stimulant, simultaneously it is a depressant.
Alcohol is quickly taken into the bloodstream and sent to almost all organs of the body. It is eliminated from the body at one-half ounce per hour. 10% is eliminated through urine, sweat, and vomit, and 90% is eliminated through the liver
Alcohol abuse is a pattern of problem drinking that result in health consequences, social problems, or both. However, alcohol dependence, or alcoholism, refers to a disease that is characterized by abnormal alcohol-seeking behavior that leads to impaired control over drinking.
Short Term Effects Long Term Effects
- Distorted vision, hearing, coordination - Loss of appetite
- Altered p0erception and emotions - Loss of vitamins
- Impaired judgment - Stomach illnesses
- Bad breath - Sexual impotence
- Hangovers - Damage to skin, liver, heart, CNS
- An alcohol overdose can result in unconsciousness, dangerously slowed breathing and heart rate, coma or death. Contest to see who can drink the most and or the fastest are dangerous because they can lead to alcohol poisoning or overdose. Drinking can cause serious injuries and death 38% of drowning deaths are alcohol related; alcohol-related traffic accidents are the number 1 cause of death among teens. In men, alcohol use can lower testosterone levels. In women, alcohol use can cause irregular menstrual cycles. A 12-ounces can of beer, a 5-ounces glass of wine and a 1.5-ounce shot of liquor all contain the same amount of alcohol.
American Medical Association declared alcoholism a disease on the basis of three criteria: alcoholism has 1) a known etiology (cause), 2) a known progression of symptoms, which get worse over time, and 3) a known outcomes (dependence, physical and psychological symptoms and eventual death)
Metabolism of Alcohol
Alcohol is metabolized in the liver. Alcohol is oxidized into acetaldehyde with the assistance of zinc-containing enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase. When alcohol is present in large concentrations, another liver-enzyme system, called the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS), is induced to convert alcohol into the metabolite of acetaldehyde. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the enzyme that assists in the further metabolization of acetaldehyde into acetic acid where it then becomes excreted.
The idea behind antabuse was to alter alcohol’s reinforcing properties by removing its pleasurable and rewarding effects. Antabuse was developed as an aversive treatment approach to alcoholism. The unpleasant effects produced in combination with alcohol are caused by inhibiting the alcohol metabolizing enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase. With this enzyme inhibited, alcohol is biotransformed into acetaldehyde, but cannot be transformed into acetic acid sine the enzyme needed in this conversion process is nullified by anatabuse.