Uses for Herbs and Spices
Seeds can be sprinkled on coffee cakes, cookies and sweet rolls.
Fresh or dried leaves which can be used in salads, vegetables, ragouts, sausages (rice and blood) and with tomato dishes.
a natural snipped in with tomatoes; terrific in fresh pesto; other possibilities include pasta sauce, peas, zucchini
BAY LEAF Bay
Dried leaf can be used in roasts, bean soup, ragout, or wherever a poignant flavor is desired.
Good in sauerkraut, sweet cabbage, breads, rolls or mixed with cream cheese. Can be sprinkled over meats such as pork, liver, kidneys before cooking. Can be added to cucumber and beet salads.
Fresh or dried leaves with a peppery flavor can be used in some soups, salads and with chicken or fish.
Whole can be used for pork or ham roasts, hot wine, tea and in sweet syrups. Ground cloves can be used in some soups and stews and also in some pastries.
Has a delicate onion flavor and is used fresh finely chopped as a garnish for salads, boiled new potatoes or mixed with cottage cheese, dips and omelets.
Stick is used in hot wine and other beverages. It is also used in pickling. Ground cinnamon is used in pastries, "trijet" and cakes.
Mexican, Asian and Caribbean cooking; salsas, tomatoes
Seeds are used in spicing cookies, hot breads, green salads and poultry stuffing. Ground coriander is used to flavor sausages and fresh pork.
Fresh leaves are used in pickling, sauerkraut, bean soup, some sauces salads, carrots, cottage cheese, fish, green beans, potatoes and tomatoes
Seeds are used to flavor soups, pickled beets, sauerkraut, breads and cakes. Leaves are used in sauces and green salads.
Cut up or chopped can be used in salads, stuffing for meat or poultry, soups, meat jello. Kernel can be rubbed into roasts, poultry and fish.
Cracked ginger can be used in beverages and pickles. Ground ginger is used in sauces and in baking.
Fresh leaves are used with lamb, in salads, fruit salads, carrots, parsley, peas, tabouli and for flavoring soups, sauces, beverages and marmalades.
Mustard flour is used in meat dishes and sauces and gravies. Mustard seeds are used to sprinkle over salads and in pickling meats.
Ground nutmeg is used in baking and sauces. Can be sprinkled over fruit, puddings, custards and omelets.
Chopped onions can be used with stews, goulash, soup and stuffing's. Sliced onions can be used in salads such as bean, cucumber, beet, potato and pea.
Ground paprika is used in goulash, paprikash, salad dressing and over poultry before roasting.
The curly leaf is the most common, but the flat-leaf or Italian parsley is more strongly flavored and often preferred for cooking. Naturals for parsley include potato salad, tabouli
Whole pepper is used for pickling and in soups. Ground pepper is used in most cooking for flavor.
Used in "potica," cookies, cakes, with noodles and as a topping on breads and rolls.
This spicy herb is used fresh in sauces and stews and on roasts. Especially good in all lamb dishes and wild game.
chicken, fish, lamb, pork, roasted potatoes, soups, stews, tomatoes
Dried saffron is used to flavor sauces, soups, rice and poultry. Used sparingly in breads, rolls and cakes. Can also be used as a coloring agent.
Fresh or dried can be used in sausage and stuffing, with veal and pork roasts and in chicken soup and poultry seasoning,
Used in some soups, salads, sausages, stuffing's, lamb stews and with scrambled eggs.
Can be used in soups, rice sausage, egg salad, salad dressing and vegetables. It has a mint flavor and may be used either fresh or dried.
Very pungent. The dried leaves can be used in eggs, lima beans, potatoes, poultry, summer squash, tomatoes, soup, meat stews, stuffing's and salad dressings.
Can be used in "pehtranova potica," in salad dressings, sauces, egg, fish and chicken dishes and with chops and steaks. Also tasty with creamed mushrooms and can be added to vinegar for salad dressings.
dried bean dishes, stews
Basil; Bay; Caraway; Chervil; Chives; Cilentro; Dill; Fennel; French Sorrel; Garlic; Horse Radish; Lemon Balm; Lemon Thyme; Lovage; Marjoram; Mints; Oregano; Parsley; Rosemary; Sage; Salad Burnett; Savory; Sweet Cicely; Tarragon; Upright Thymes
Basil/Tomatoe - Borage/Strawberry - Calendula/all over - Chamomile/Onion or Cabbage - Chervil/ Radish - Chives/Carrots or Tomatoes - Dill/Cabbage Family - Garlic/ Raspberries or Roses - Hyssop/Cabbage - Mint/ Raspberry - Nasturium/Squash - Parsley/Asparagus - Summer Savory/Beans - Sage/Carrots - Tagetes/all over -
Bay laurel; Cuban Oregano; Dittany of Crete; Fruit Sage; Lemon Eucalyptus; Lemon Verbena; Mexican Tarragon; Pineapple Sage; Scented Geranium; Stevia; Topiary Rosemary; Vietnamese Coriander
Edible Herbs and Flowers
1. Eat flowers only when positive of identification. Not all flowers are edible and some are toxic.
2. Eat only unsprayed, organically grown flowers. Do not eat roses from a florist.
3. Eat petals, not pollen centre.
Basil; Borage; Calendula; Chive; Cornflower; Daylily; Dianthus; Garlic; Chive; Honeysuckle; Johnny-Jump-Up; Lavender; Mint; Nasturium; Pansy; Pineapple Sage; Rose; Rosemary Sage; Scented Geranium; Sweet Woodruff; Tuberous Begonia; Violet
Anise Hyssop; Angelica; Cinnamon Basil; Calendula; Catnip; German Chamomile; Dill; Fennel; Hyssop; Lemon Balm; Lemon Catnip; Orange Mint; Pineapple Sage; Red Bergamot; Rose Hips; Rose Petals; Sages; Scented Geraniums; Sweet Cicely; Sweet Marjoram; Thymes
Basil; Bay Tree; Borage Bush; Clives 'Grolau'; Chervil; Cuban Oregano; Dill 'Durak' French Sorrel; Garlic Chives; Lemon Verbena; Mints; Oregano; Parsley; Rosemary; Scented Geranium; Spanish and French lavenders; Sweet Marjoram; Summer Savory; Tarragon; Thyme
Bay Tree (esp. standard form in pot); Hedging Rugosa Roses; Hyssop; Upright Germander; Lavender (esp. "Munstead" & "Jean Davis"); Rosemary; Rue (esp. Jackman's Blue); Sage (esp. purple and golden varieties); Santolinas; Southernwood; Upright Thymes; Winter Savory; Wormwood
Inter-plant strong scented herbs to help confuse hungry bugs! Anise; Basil; Catnip; Chives; Garlic Chives; Lavender; Marigold; Mint; Parsley; Rosemary; Sage; Tagetes; Thyme
Ajuga; Angelica; Bergamot; Catnip; Chamomile; Chervil; Coriander; Comfrey; Corsican Mint; Costmary; Dill; Eve; Primrose; Fennel; Feverfew; French Sorrel; Germander; Hyssop; Lady's Bedstraw; Lady's Mantle; Lemon Balm; Lovage; Lungwort; Mint; Parsley; Pennyroyal; Salad Burnett; Sweet Cicely; Violets; Wormwood; Wood Betony;
For Complete Shade: Sweet Woodruff only
Bees & Butterflies
Angelica Ascelpsia; Basil Boragel Buddleia; Catnip; Comfrey; Dill; Echinacea; Fennel; Foxglove; Hyssop; Lavender; Lemon Balm; Lovage; Marigold; Marjoram; Mint; Nettles; Parsley; Oregano; Red Bergamot; Rosemary; Sage; Scabiosa; Sunflower; Thyme; Yarrow
Aloe; Catmin; Catnip; Cat Thyme; Chamomile; Pennyroyal; Rosemary; Valerian
Arnica; Betony; Boneset; Calendula; Catnip; Chamomiles; Clary Sage; Coltsfoot; Comfrey; Echinacea; Elecampagne; Feverfew; Garlic; Golden Seal; Greater Celandine; Horehound; Hyssop; Joe Pye Weed; Lady's Mantle; Lavender; Marshmallow; Motherwort; Mugwort; Pennyroyal; Scullcap; St. John's Wort; Valerian; Vervain
Artemesias; Bay; Bergamot; Boxwood; Cornflowers; Curry plant; Dyer's Chamomile; Eucalyptus; German Statice; Globe Amaranth; Hyssop; Larkspur; Lavender; Lemon Verbena; Mugwort; Myrtle; Nigella; Rosemary; Rose; Sage; Santolina; Scented Geranium; Statice; Strawflower; Sweet Annie; Tansy; Teasel; Thyme; Yarrow
Artemesias; Catnip (esp. "Seven Hills"); Costmary; Dittany of Crete; English Curry; Eryngium; Horehound; Lambs Ear; Lavender; Mullein; Sages; Santolina; Silver Clary; Sage; Southernwood; Wooly Thyme; Wormwood; Yarrow (esp. "Moonshine")
Begin with a base of 1/3 dried Mugwort plus a mix of the following medicinals: Chamomiles; Hops; Hyssop; Lavender; Linden; Pennyroyal; Scullcap; Thymes; Valerian; Vervain
Optional: add fragrant potpourris flowers and greens
Achillia the Pearl; Acrolinium; Anise; Hyssop; Astrantia; Baby's Breath; Bay; Bergamot; Calendula; Chamomile; Clary Sage; Corn Flowers; Dianthus; Echinacea; English Curry Plant; Hyssop; Immortelle; Larkspur; Lemon Balm; Lemon Bergamot; Lemon Verbena; Lavender; Mints; Orris Root; Pennyroyal; Peony; Roses; Rosemary; Sage; Santolina; Statice; Strawflowers; Thyme; Violet; Yarrow
Agrimony; Anchusa; Calendula; Coltsfoot; Dyer's Chamomile; Lady's Bedstraw; Madder; Marigold; Nettle; Parsley; St. John's Wort; Sorrel; Tansy; Weld; Woad
Herb Substitution Chart
You may find yourself in a situation where you are out of a specified herb in a recipe or perhaps you just don't care for that specific herb. This chart will help you choose substitutions or alternatives that should work with your recipe. Whenever substituting, you must realize that the flavor will not be as originally intended in the recipe. As such, it is wise to begin your substitution with half the specified recipe amount and then adjust to your own personal tastes. You should always feel free to adjust and add to any recipe to suit yourself and your family. Who knows? You just might create a new family favorite!
Basil Oregano or thyme
Chervil Tarragon or parsley
Chive Green onion; onion; or leek
Italian Seasoning Blend of any of these: basil, oregano, rosemary, and ground red pepper
Marjoram Basil; thyme; or savory
Mint Basil; marjoram; or rosemary
Oregano Thyme or basil
Parsley Chervil or cilantro
Poultry Seasoning Sage plus a blend of any of these: thyme, marjoram, savory, black pepper, and rosemary
Red Pepper Dash bottled hot pepper sauce or black pepper
Rosemary Thyme; tarragon; or savory
Sage Poultry seasoning; savory; marjoram; or rosemary
Savory Thyme; marjoram; or sage
Tarragon Chervil; dash fennel seed; or dash aniseed
Thyme Basil; marjoram; oregano; or savory
Spice Substitution Chart
You may find yourself in a situation where you are out of a specified spice in a recipe or perhaps you just don't care for that specific spice. This chart will help you choose substitutions or alternatives that should work with your recipe. Whenever substituting, you must realize that the flavor will not be as originally intended in the recipe. As such, it is wise to begin your substitution with half the specified recipe amount and then adjust to your own personal tastes. You should always feel free to adjust and add to any recipe to suit yourself and your family. Who knows? You just might create a new family favorite!
Allspice Cinnamon; cassia; dash of nutmeg or mace; or dash of cloves
Aniseed Fennel seed or a few drops anise extract
Chili Powder Dash bottled hot pepper sauce plus a combination of oregano and cumin
Cinnamon Nutmeg or allspice (use only 1/4 of the amount)
Cloves Allspice; cinnamon; or nutmeg
Cumin Chili powder
Ginger Allspice; cinnamon; mace; or nutmeg
Mace Allspice; cinnamon; ginger; or nutmeg
Nutmeg Cinnamon; ginger; or mace
Saffron Dash turmeric (for color)
Herbal Tea Combinations
Many herbs make excellent teas on their own. My favorite summer tea is spearmint or peppermint fresh from my herb garden.
Use approximately two tablespoons of fresh herbs for every cup of tea desired or 1 teaspoon of dried. Experiment with different combinations and the amount of herbs you like in yours. Here are a few combinations to get you started.
Anise, chamomile, bee balm
Betony and lavender flowers
Lemon verbena, lemon balm and borage flowers
Chamomile and spearmint or applemint
Chamomile and valerian
Lemon verbena, lemongrass and lemon thyme
Scented geranium and chocolate mint
Scented geranium and lemongrass
Spearmint and peppermint
herb spice list-use
Herbs and Spices
or What goes with what?
This is just a very dull alphabetical list of herbs and spices and things you can use them in, primarily aimed at an American or European audience. Dried herbs are best stored in well sealed small containers, out of direct sunlight or heat.
If there is a seasoning you might be interested in, but don't remember ever trying, first ask someone who is more familiar with them, or if you have a health food that sells herbs and spices in bulk, you can smell the real thing before you purchase it. If still unsure, find someone to share in the purchase. Be sure to package each share in a small well sealed container. Herbs lose their value quickly if exposed to the air, sunlight, or heat
As another guide to a first purchase, look for the spices or herbs that go on the things you like most. You may be familiar with the flavor, but not have known the name.
Basil - use on/in: cheese, eggs, green beans, lamb, peas, potatoes, poultry, salad dressings, sauces, soups, tomatoes, mushrooms, fish
Bay Leaf (Laurel) - use on/in: fish, pickling, sauces and gravies, stews and soups
Capers - use on/in: fish, sea food
Chervil (like parsley) - use on/in: eggs, fish, peas and carrots, poultry, salad dressings, salads, summer squash, tomatoes
Chives (slight onion flavor) - use on/in: cheese, eggs, meats, poultry, salads, soups, sauces, vegetables, spaghetti
Coriander - use on/in: meat, poultry, in herb teas
Dill - use on/in: creamed cheese/cottage cheese, fish, potato, sauces, spaghetti, tomatoes, vegetables
Garlic - use on/in: soups, salads, stews, spaghetti sauce, meats
Horse-radish - use to make sauce for: meats, cold meats, potatoes
Marjoram - (use sparingly) on/in: cheese/eggs, chicken, fish, meat stews, stuffings, vegetables - carrots, greens, lima beans, squash
Mint (various mint flavors) - use on/in: meat, salads, garnish, iced drinks
Oregano - use on/in: cheese, omelets, pizza, pork, spaghetti sauce, stews, vegetables
Parsley - use on/in: salads, meats, stews, garnish
Pennyroyal - (use sparingly) on/in: salads
Poultry Seasoning (usually ground mixture based on sage) - use on/in: poultry stuffings, corn bread
Rosemary - use on/in: Biscuits, lamb, potatoes, poultry, roast beef, sauces for meat or fish, stews, vegetables
Sage - (use lightly) on/in: cheese, fish, pork, poultry, sausage, tomatoes, salads
Savory - use on/in: eggs, baked beans, lima beans, beef and meat loaf, potatoes, squash, rice, vegetable soups
Shallots - use like chives
Tarragon - (use sparingly) on/in: eggs, poultry, salads, sauces, sea food, tomatoes, vegetables - beets, greens, mushrooms, peas
Thyme - (use sparingly) on/in: breads, cheeese, fish, stews, stuffings, pork, vegetables - carrots, eggplant, peas, tomatoes
Allspice (resembles a blend of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves) - cakes, cookies, pickling, gravies, meats, fish, tomato sauces
Aniseed (Licorice-like flavor) - cheesecakes, sweet rolls, fruit
Caroway Seeds - saurkraut, cabbage, noodles, soups, breads and rolls, pork, cheese spreads
Cardamom Seeds - cookies, cakes
Cayenne Pepper (a hot chili pepper) - sauces, eggs, meat, sea food, stews
Celery Seeds - cheese, fish, salad dressings, sauces, stews, eggs, tomatoes, salads, vegetables
Chili Powder (a blend of ground chili peppers and spices) - Chili con carne, hot sauces, eggs, gravies, sea food, stews
Cinnamon - sweet potatoes, toast, apples, cakes, cookies, puddings, hot biscuits
Cloves - ham, peaches, stews, vebetables, beets, potatoes
Curry Powder (a blend of spices used to make a sauce for) - eggs, meat, fish, poultry, vegetables
Dill Seeds - gravies, soup, potato salad, salads, sourkraut, cabbage, cauliflower
Ginger - gingerbread, pumpkin pie, chicken, summer squash
Mace (use like nutmeg)
Mustard (ground seed) - eggs, cheese sauces
Nutmeg - cakes, breads, cabbage, cauliflower, green beans, in sweet dessert sauces
Paprika - fish, gravies, salad dressings, sea food, vegetables, eggs
Pepper - soups, eggs, stews, soups, salads, almost anything really
Poppy Seeds - eggs, gravies, bread, salads, noodles
Saffron (the world's most expensive spice) - breads and rolls, rice
· And one special one:
This one is on the list because there is absolutely no reason why you should ever buy it. Cinnamon-sugar. You can mix a little ground cinnamon with enough sugar to make it to your liking. If you don't have a container to put it in, wait until you get one. Don't buy cinnamon-sugar. No one is that rich. You aren't going to be able to come up with some life-or-death excuse that I'll believe to explain why you bought that container of cinnamon-sugar. That's it! You buy it, you're out of here! That's final!
"In the beginning, there was James Beard and there was curry
and that was about all."
-- Nora Ephron
Humans have been using spices almost as long as they've been eating. Just as classic recipes evolved, so did spice blends. By making your own mixes, you can adjust flavors to suit your personal needs.
Major Spice Blends
Probably the most widely-recognized spice blend is curry powder. Curries can contain as little as two or three different spices or up to fifty or more. There is no set amount or ingredient list for most spice mixtures. They have evolved based on personal tastes and should always be adjusted to suit your own needs.
If you plan on making your own spice blends at home, you will want to invest in an electric spice grinder. Luckily, they are inexpensive. If you should have difficulty finding a spice grinder for some odd reason, you can also use a electric coffee grinder with equal success. You should be able to find either for around $15 and surely under $25. Of course, you can always resort to grinding by hand with a mortar and pestle. Many spice blend recipes will recommend toasting whole spices over high heat in a dry, heavy skillet before grinding them into a powder. This helps to release more flavor from the spices.
Unless you use a particular spice blend a lot or intend to split up a batch to give as gifts, don't plan on making a huge batch at once. It's best to make smaller batches that can be used within a month's time. Spices lose potency and flavor over time. Light, moisture and heat are the worst enemies of spices, so keep them in a tightly-sealed container in a cool, dark place. Although it may be more convenient, you should not store your spices near your stove or in open racks on the counter.
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