"THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE" by Ace Preston
If you mention the term "GHOST IN THE MACHINE" most people think of the 1981 album by the band "The Police". There are some who "Ghost In The Machine" is the 1993 movie of the same name.
The term actually first appeared in Gilbert Ryle's book "The Concept of the Mind" written in 1949. Ryle, a British philosopher was describing Rene Descartes' Mind-Body Dualism to highlight the absurdity of dualist systems like Descartes' where mental activity carries on in parallel to physical action, but where their means of interaction are unknown or, at best, speculative.
In 1967 Arthur Koestler's book "The Ghost in the Machine" uses Ryle's phrase as its title. The book's main focus is mankind's movement towards self-destruction in the nuclear war arena. It is critical of B.F. Skinner's Behaviourist Theory. The book's central concepts is that as the human brain grows, it has built upon earlier, more primitive brain structures, and that these are the "ghost in the machine". Koestler's theory is that these structures at times can overpower higher logical functions and are responsible for anger, hate, and other destructive impulses.
I utilize the term "Ghost in the Machine" for the Unexplainable Images Captured by Camera. Since I have preference of shooting locations of great tragedies (crime scenes, concentration camps, battle fields etc..)...sometimes out of the ordinary images appear within the picture. I don't pay them much attention for I am a social-scientist and not interested in the Paranormal.
PSYCHIC PHOTOGRAPHY known as Spirit Photography is the most important evidence investigators have in support of the supernatural. It was first introduced in 1862 in Boston by William Mumler. Since this field is not a science there can be no right or wrong answers only theories. There are no set rules and you rarely end up with a full scale body apparition. Contrary to the belief that in the presence of ghosts the temperature in a room changes, or odors can become present, the feeling of being watched is eminent. One must also be at the right place at the right time.
Because of the invention of the digital camera steps to photographing anomalies have been enhanced. Anomalies can now be captured by using the night sensitivity device built into the CCD without utilizing flash and the photo may be enhanced by vooming in on the object.
On the topic of ORBS, not that all orbs are spirits. Orbs can be dust or airborne debris but at times it is believed by some that the energy of a spirit is formless and can appear in the form of a round/semi-round cloudy anomaly which can move and make physical contact.
In the former town of Mauch Chunch Pennsylvania now called JIM THORPE lays the final resting place of James Francis Thorpe the "World's Greatest Athlete". There is also a former correctional facility previously called the Carbon County Jail built in 1871 which has been converted to a museum known as "THE OLD JAIL". It was utilized as a prison until 1995 and is famous for the "Hand Print on the Wall" as well as the hangings of the "Molly Maguires". The prison was built and designed by Edward Haviland, son of John Haviland, who built the Eastern State Penitentiary. I photographed The Old Jail on two occasions. The Old Jail Is Said to be Haunted. It has "Residual Hauntings" which is a playback of a tragic event. It posseses manifestations of full and partial body apparitions which is the spirit of a deceased human being who is stuck here and it possesses the rare 3rd type of ghosts who interact with the living. Though rare are considered the most dangerous.
Recently I watched a show called "Ghosthunters" on the Sci-Fi Channel. The creators of "Ghosthunters" are actual plumbers who work for the Roto-Rooter Company who one day decided to become official investigators on the topic of ghosts. Enough said.
Harry Houdini was honest about the whole thing when it came to spirits and the after life only because he found a way to make a living out of exposing fakes. After all it was Houdini who stated "who is better qualified than myself who is the greatest faker of all to expose fakers". Even his name was fake. He even claimed in interviews to have been born in Appleton, Wisconsin but his Hungarian birth certificate was uncovered by researchers after his death.
Houdini had planned along with his wife to make the greatest escape of all time. He was going to attempt to communicate from the dead. Ehrich Weisz or Erich Weiss died on Halloween 1926 in the city of Detroit. He remains silent and buried in Ridgewood Queens NY.
When speaking of spirits and apparitions we find plenty of mention in the Bible but it is the Greeks where I find the writings of Plato in the "Phaedo" written in 360 B.C.E. most interesting.
Phaedo was a friend of the Greek philosopher Socrates who had visited him while in prison on the day he died. The following are exempts from "PHAEDO".
"And what is that process? Revival. And revival, if there be such a thing, is the birth of the dead into the world of the living?" "Then there is a new way in which we arrive at the inference that the living come from the dead, just as the dead come from the living; and if this is true, then the souls of the dead must be in some place out of which they come again. And this, as I think, has been satisfactorily proved." "And this, my friend, may be conceived to be that heavy, weighty, earthy element of sight by which such a soul is depressed and dragged down again into the visible world, because she is afraid of the invisible and of the world below-prowling about tombs and sepulchers, in the neighborhood of which, as they tell us, are seen certain ghostly apparitions of souls which have not departed pure, but are cloyed with sight and therefore visible." "there must be the souls, not of the good, but of the evil, who are compelled to wander about such places in payment of the penalty of their former evil way of life; and they continue to wander until the desire which haunts them is satisfied and they are imprisoned in another body. And they may be supposed to be fixed in the same natures which they had in their former life." "let us suppose that there are two sorts of existences, one seen, the other unseen. Let us suppose them. The seen is the changing, and the unseen is the unchanging. That may be also supposed. And, further, is not one part of us body, and the rest of us soul? To be sure. And to which class may we say that the body is more alike and akin? Clearly to the seen: no one can doubt that. And is the soul seen or not seen? Not by man, Socrates. And by "seen" and "not seen" is meant by us that which is or is not visible to the eye of man? Yes, to the eye of man. And what do we say of the soul? is that seen or not seen? Not seen. Unseen then? Yes. Then the soul is more like to the unseen, and the body to the seen? That is most certain, Socrates." "But the soul which has been polluted, and is impure at the time of her departure, and is the companion and servant of the body always, and is in love with and fascinated by the body and by the desires and pleasures of the body, until she is led to believe that the truth only exists in a bodily form, which a man may touch and see and taste and use for the purposes of his lusts-the soul, I mean, accustomed to hate and fear and avoid the intellectual principle, which to the bodily eye is dark and invisible, and can be attained only by philosophy-do you suppose that such a soul as this will depart pure and unalloyed? "