Malthus and Innovation
One of the most hated figures in economics is Malthus. Malthus claimed that, since population increased exponentially - and land available for cultivation increases algebraically - the world would become overpopulated, and everyone would become poorer. His solution to that was that people exercise "moral restraint" in how many sexual intercourses they have. Like all people who think in this manner, he had no concept of creativity and innovation; and these are and always have been the true saving grace of mankind.
Malthus did not dream that there would be tractors to increase the efficiency of agriculture. Malthus did not dream that there would be birth control. He thought like a stooge, and he got the results of a stooge. Reality did not co-operate with his theorizations.
Indeed it is in the places that practice his solutions the most that the Malthusian dynamics are most prevalent. In Africa and Middle East, birth control is forbidden, and every intercourse results in a child. These places have been recklessly overpopulating. The reason is the same moral values that Malthus proscribed as the solution for humanity.
Nobody will limit himself to one or two sexual intercourses during a lifetime; and the solution is not "moral restraint" but rather using technology. Birth control, where used, has in fact resulted in controlled population growth or no population growth; whereas places that do not use birth control continue to overpopulate. "Moral restraint" is not helping them one bit; it makes things much worse. What will solve these problems is rationality - whether as regarding the production of food or as regarding the control of reproduction.
A person with no concept of creativity, ingenuity or innovation has very little to offer humanity. Instead such people become blockages to viable solution. Roman Empire was not undone by "decadence"; it was undone by un-creative thinkers who thought that the steam engine, invented in 20AD, was not economical. We have to do better than the Roman Empire.
So, some say, but didn't science and technology create the current problems? No, they did not. If it had been up to scientists, the world would have been running on clean energy for decades. The same people who impugn technology or claim it to be "playing God" have no problem with destruction of rich and essential environments like the Amazon. According to them, creation is playing God while destruction is merely human. This is how far from sanity we have come.
Intelligence - real intelligence - not "moral restraint," is the solution to all these problems. Ingenuity and creative thinking have created most of what people have, and this has to be the case here. Solutions such as irrigating the Sahara with desalinated ocean water and putting into place large-scale clean energy technologies will not only feed the world and end abject poverty but also create a livable planet.
It is toward this outcome that people of goodwill everywhere need to strive.