YouTube Wants You to Use Your Real Name in the Comments
YouTube Comments: Can Real Names Prevent Flaming and Trolling?
YouTube comment threads: you'll never find a more wretched hive of scum and villainy. Google wants to put an end to it by encouraging YouTube users to use their real names in the comments.
If a YouTuber whose account is not yet linked to the dust-gathering Google+ opts out of using his or her real name, options as to why they opted out will appear. These include "My channel is for a brand or product", "I cannot use my real name", and "I'm not sure, I'll decide later". Note that "I am a trolling fuckwad" is not listed as an option, but "I'm not sure" pretty much implies trolling as the true reason.
Would real names prevent flaming and trolling? To an extent, yes. Of course, nothing prevents you from creating a Google+ account solely for such activity, though it could conceivably get blocked pretty quickly. (YouTube has a fairly weak handle on its spam problem, due to the sheer volume of content input; not sure if it's any further on its trolling problem.)
Good Luck with That, Google
I get what Google is doing here, but there core premise is a bit misplaced. People approach that comment field with the express intention to be assholes. It's not something that just slips. Nobody has ever gone, "Hmm, I meant to type, 'I don't like this video much', but somehow it says, 'Your a fagot'". I promise you, that has never happened.
xkcd had the best solution I've ever heard, one which YouTube has actually tried: reading your YouTube comment back to you. As a YouTube uploader, you still have the power: you decide if the commentariat's input matters to you.
As a commenter, you can also review your own past comments, and delete the ones you posted whilst smashed. In fact, you should probably go ahead and do that as soon as the feature becomes available.
(Really, this is just a way for Google to further consolidate its data on your behavior. It sees your loose YouTube ID as low-hanging fruit: you're already a member, and you already have site activity, so why not merge it with your other IDs?
This may not be as good a deal for you: while it might not hurt you per se, it also has no real benefit.)