Timeline - UK education
Professor | October 20, 2009 at 11:06 amby
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News 2009 : To save on Public Expenditure the UK Gov now accepts that Schools should regulate themselves!.
Below is listed a Timeline on Education as to “change” for you to Judge for yourself. The question then is do you understand which legislation still applies either directly or partially?
1964 Industrial Training Act. Central government became directly involved in employers’ training practices for the first time. Labour government reaction to skills shortages and ineffective training methods. Set up - framework of statutory Industrial Training Boards (ITB’s) funded by levies on employers. ITB's defined artificial training standards and whilst they consulted industry the standards tended to generalise and fall short of what the best employers thought they wanted and thought that they were achieving already.
1966 New generation of Polytechnics established.
1973 Education (Work Experience) Act AND Employment and Training Act. ITB levies capped and Admin paid by Gov. Manpower Services Committee (MSC), Employment Service Agency (ESA) and the Training Services Agency (TSA) established. School leaving age raised to 16 years.
1978 Youth Opportunities Programme introduced for 16-18 year-olds ( as “new deal” ) by Albert Booth, Secretary of State for Employment in Labour Government).
1980 White Paper A New Training Initiative: A Programme for Action. Norman Tebbit plans for youth training scheme (YTS). Education Act - Parents - preference of school. YOP expanded. Jim Prior describes it as a ‘new deal’ for young people.
ITBs became distanced from employers and Mrs. Thatcher scrapped them in the early 1980's replacing them with non-statutory, employer supported ITO's (industry training organisations) to carry on ITB work at reduced cost. ITOs were ineffective. The Thatcher government had to respond politically to new technologies, global competition, recession and company closures that led to staffing cuts and unemployment. Training became an anti-unemployment tactic and, through the Manpower Services Commission MSC, training programmes were introduced for the young and longer term unemployed (YOPs and TOPS). Private training firms - newly emergent, non-traditional trainer providers - to service a new "training for the unemployed" industry.
1981 Employment and Training Act. Abolished ESA and TSA. White Paper - training should be "appropriate to the jobs available".
1982 Employment and Training Act. Removed Trade Unions from decisions relating to the costs of training on employers. Opportunities for Volunteering Scheme introduced run by DHSS; Voluntary Projects Programme introduced set up by MSC. Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI) introduced.
1983 One year Youth Training Scheme (YTS) introduced.
1985 Green Paper Education and Training for Young People - major expansion of YTS
1986 NVQs announced. YTS extended to two years
1987 White Paper on Higher Education published.
1988 Education Reform Act. Redefined the functions of LEAs in respect of F&HE. Schools required to provide information about the child’s work. Parents have the right to vote a school out of local authority control. Greater delegation of budgets to FE colleges that became corporate bodies. White Paper Top-Up Loans for Students published. Employment Act. MSC replaced by the Training Commission (TC) to prepare and administer national strategic training programmes. Social Security Act. 16/17 year-olds required to register for YTS. Youth Training Guarantee introduced. Employers taking YTS trainees complained about poor literacy and numeracy abilities of YTS school-leavers – schemes low tech ( tree planting, canal renovation, waste land clearance ) - Trade unions opposed the adult worker Employment Training scheme (argument: cheap labour damages the members).
1989 Employment Act. Dissolved the Training Commission (TC).
1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. ‘Top-up’ loans introduced for HE students. Withdrawal of Housing Benefit from HE students. YTS renamed Youth Training (YT).
1991 White Paper on Higher Education. Recommended expansion of student numbers. Parents’ Charter introduced. Parents right to school performance information (updated in 1994). Employment Department began to pilot Training Credits or Youth Credits. Polytechnics of the 1960s granted university status.
1992 Further and Higher Education Act. Removed FE and 6th <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 />Form Colleges from local authority control. FEFC established.
1993 Education Act (now consolidated in 1996 Act). Largest legislation in education. Expansion of grant-maintained schools. General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) introduced Adult training programmes. Employment Training and Employment Action replaced by Training for Work. Learning for Work introduced as a fixed-term programme lasting one year
1994 Modern Apprenticeships piloted. Accelerated Modern Apprenticeships announced. Specially designed for 18/19 yr olds running for 18 months rather than the normal 2½-3 years. FEFC funding became dependant upon the nature of the qualification sought. DTI White Paper on Competitiveness. Proposed changes that could lead to a clearer division between academic and vocational tracks from age 14. Minimum YT allowance set at less than Income Support for 16/17 year-olds living away from home.
1995 DfEE established. Youth Credits introduced in all areas of England and most of Wales and Scotland, name YT dropped. Modern Apprenticeships introduced - work-based route - intention that apprentices would have employee status.
1996 Dearing Report Review - recommended introduction of National Traineeships - work-based option for school leavers and employers. White Paper “Learning to Compete” - new Learning Credits - entitlement to NVQ Level to age 21 but no entitlement to financial support was proposed. Education Act – now Consolidated all Education Acts concerning schools since 1944. National Curriculum - children entitled to a broad and balanced education preparing them for FE and training or the job market. Jobseekers Act – Study hours redefined so as not to lose entitlement to JSA benefit.
1997 (January) Report from the Commission on Public Policy and British Business (CPBB) published. Argued for a flexible, skilled labour force and identified poor education and training as responsible for unemployment.
1997 National Traineeships introduced - progression to Modern Apprenticeships and the work-based route - offer a broad and flexible learning programme for young people delivered in partnership with FE colleges. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) established - to combine the work of the National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) and the School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA). Learning Card introduced to final school year in raising their awareness of entitlement to further learning. Dearing Report - recommended that students pay for tuition fees and grants maintained. DfEE guidance to FEFCs to achieve a fairer balance between state and employer contributions to employer-led provision for those aged 19 or over. ‘Investing in Young People’ announced by DfEE - long term aim is to get as many young people as possible to NVQ Level 2 standard. New Start (part of Investors in Young People) introduced aims to bring back into learning all those young people aged 14-17 who have dropped out where effots begin at 14 years. Partnerships in England all had to include the Careers Service, schools, FE colleges, TECs, local authorities, the Youth Service and voluntary organizations. Education (Mandatory Awards) Regulations made by LEAs under 1962 Act. Guidance on Early Years [ young children ] development plans and partnerships published. Millennium Volunteers programme announced by DfEE, for organisations to bid for funding to expand volunteering by young people.
1998 Tackling Social Exclusion/Disaffection/Disengagement: 18 Policy Action Teams (PATs) set up within the Cabinet Office to fast track policy development on problems in deprived neighbourhoods. Education (National Curriculum (NC)) (Exceptions at Key Stage 4) Regulations SI 1998 No. 2021. Introduced regulations to permit some schools to set aside aspects of the NC at KS4 to provide opportunities for the wider use of work-related learning programmes for 14-16 year-olds. Teaching and Higher Education Act -. Introduced new system of HE student loans and fees, largely abolishing student grants. Introduction of the Time off Work for Study concerning fees - During the passage of the legislation, Ministers proposed more support for vulnerable groups to head off a revolt on tuition fees. Peers' opposition to different fees in Scotland led to an independent review group being created. School Standards and Framework Act. Amends Education Act 1996 maintaining that LEAs can continue to make payments to new FE and HE students from September 1999. Further Education into the New Millennium published by DfEE, endorsing previous calls for widening participation in FE. Secretary of State, David Blunkett, announces - people under 55 years of age entitled to support and help in the same way as younger students. From September 1998 - a statutory duty on schools to provide a programme of careers education for pupils aged 16-18. Government requires schools to run careers education programmes for year 9-11. Children in year 7 will be introduced to careers education in the hope of raising awareness, enthusiasm and expectations. By mid1998 new regional development agencies (RDAs) that each had a number of TECs in their areas, were competing with TECs over responsibility for regional training needs. Opinion: Government-created training institutions are unable to integrate themselves well with individual businesses whom view "training" institutions as bureaucratic mill-stones around their necks run by people who really do not understand their day to day problems of running the business.
1999 Modern Apprenticeships expanded by 10,000 ( total = 82,000 ). £50 bonus introduced for those trainees who satisfactorily complete pre-vocational training. New 16-17 ‘Learning Gateway’ leading to New National Traineeships and Modern Apprenticeships - individual action plan in 16-17 Gateway with learning at own pace. National Literacy Strategy and National Learning Targets introduced following the Moser Report (Improving Literacy and Numeracy: A Fresh Start, The Report of the Working Group, February 1999). Tackling Social exclusion/disaffection/disengagement: SEU PAT 12 Report Bridging the Gap - New Opportunities for 16-18 year-olds not in education, employment or training’ published (Cm 4405).Suggested extending pilot EMAs ( Educational Maintenance Allowances ) to homeless and disabled young people. Government consultation to prevent Schools using exclusion from school to improve league table rankings. Social Inclusion - Pupil Support Grant issued for consultation ( New grant will provide funding to LEAs and school to deal with ‘disruptive and disaffected’ pupils (from April 1999) - excluded pupils receive a full timetable linking to the New Start. ). Plans announced for a Youth Card that would validate EMAs, monitor attendance and attract discount. At risk of disaffection by 14-16 year-olds to spend part of the week in FE or work experience. A second round of projects for disaffected 14-17 year-olds announced. New Futures Fund introduced -Unique to Scotland, providing intensive support/help to16-34 year-olds suffering from serious disadvantage in looking for work. Care Standards Bill introduced - combines regulation and inspection for Early Years childcare and education in England. DfEE White Paper, Learning to succeed: A New framework for post-16 learning (Cm 4392) where the Gov plans to create a single new advice and support service in charge of trying to steer young people aged 13-19 through the system. In April 2001, TECs to be superseded by Local Learning and Skills Councils. Investors in Young People developed further and renamed ConneXions - New Start to be extended, Careers Service refocused on those in greatest need, measures introduced to tackle truancy and exclusion from school, right to time off, Learning Gateway, Youth Service to be audited. A 'general' degree for less academic students will be introduced (except in Scotland) (Daily Telegraph 19.10.99). Piloting a new EMA to test its ability to increase participation, retention and achievement among 16-19 year-olds participating in post-16 education. Payment of EMA will be based upon satisfactory attendance and adherence to a learning agreement between pupil and school/college. From Sept 2000 EMA variants to be tested on homeless young people and/or disabled. Gov exploring how EMA can serve the needs of teenage parents. The Lane Group on FE student support recommends minimum national entitlements, largely means-tested. Cubie Committee Report (Scotland). Recommended abolition of student tuition fees.
2000 PM Blair askes G Brown to chair a new high-level Cabinet Committee on Children and Young People's Services and created the post of Minister for Young People. Committee task supported by a Children and Young People's Unit (CYPU) to co-ordinate policies to prevent poverty and underachievement among children and young people up to the age of 19 years. The CYPU to implement/manage a Children's Fund. Sure Start set up to service younger children and families based upon the belief that investment in early childhood can help later performance at school, prevent truancy and reduce the risk of unemployment, drug abuse and crime - The goal for children UNDER FOUR is to ensure that they are ready to learn when they arrive at school. £452 million in England set aside over the next three years to deliver Sure Start. 250 local Sure Start programmes expected to be up and running by end of 2002 and a further 15 in England to help teenage parents return to education/employment. Teenage Pregnancy Strategy ( of 1999 SEU PAT 12 ) aims to halve the rate of conceptions among under-18s in England by 2010. Learning support units ('sin bins') will be established in schools to tackle disruption. Poverty and Social Exclusion (National Strategy) Bill published - Aim to reduce and eliminate poverty and social exclusion in the United Kingdom. National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal launched - urges action for coherent policies as significant numbers of young people are at risk from a complex range of social problems - calls for Gov spending change from crisis intervention to prevention for young people such as housing, health and administration of benefits; and more involvement of young people in the design and delivery of services. Neighbourhood Renewal Unit formed, based in DETR. QCA proposed a National Diploma for 18 year-olds on the same lines as high school graduation in the US. DfEE consulted on a Bill to improve services for parents of children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) or disabilities. Excellence in Cities programme announced to improve standards in inner-city areas involving Learning Mentors, and Learning Support Units - a network of City Learning Centres, more Beacon and Specialist schools, and small Education Action Zones. Plans announced for new vocational GCSEs to replace some GNVQs for 14-16 year-olds in 2002. DfEE launched campaign telling 16 year-olds "Don't quit [school] now!". Learning and Skills Act - sets out main duties of Learning and Skills Council for England. Quigley Report recommended Scotland meet the cost of exempting students from elsewhere in the UK studying in Scotland in their fourth year. Government consulting on two-year vocational foundation degrees. Learning and Skills Act – Unifies/simplifies funding but where funding for training or education is NOT LESS THAN 30 HOURS thus rendering the 16 hour Job Seekers Allowance (JSA) as irrelevant for funding purposes. Government consulted on the framework for personal advisers in Connexions.
2001 Queen’s Speech - To extend the focus on literacy and numeracy in schools to 11-14 year-olds, expand the Excellence in Cities programme. Schools: Achieving Success White Paper published. Enhanced practical guidelines on safety during school trips announced, to be incorporated in DfES guidance on the Heath and Safety of Pupils on Educational Visits. A New Commitment to Neighbourhood Renewal: National Strategy Action Plan, was launched by the PM. Summer Activities for 16 Year-olds Programme introduced - £50m from The National Lottery New Opportunities Fund for disengaged young people on the brink of leaving school with few qualifications or have little sense of direction. Special Educational Needs (SEN) and Disability Bill - Two pronged pieces of legislation for SEN children giving them anti-discrimination rights. Piloting new Pupil Learning Credits to target young people from disadvantaged backgrounds and offering up to £75,000 to the most challenged schools to improve in-school support and out-of-school activities. Beattie Committee Report, Implementing Inclusiveness, Realising Potential, sets out recommendations for Scottish Executive.First wave of ConneXions partnerships begin - taking account of the views of young people, inclusion, partnership, community involvement and neighbourhood renewal, extending opportunity and equality of opportunity, evidence based practice. Youth Service Standards Fund - Funding to boost the capacity of the Youth Service to provide young people with a wide range of personal development opportunities. DfES will consult on the best use of the money as part of the 'Transforming Youth Work' consultation and will issue guidance after this.The Local Network element of the Children's Fund is making £70m available over 3 years for local community/voluntary groups to help vulnerable children aged 0-19 and and ensure 5-13 age group bridges the gap between Sure Start and ConneXions. Mentoring Fund - £5.3m over next 3 years to support new and existing mentoring projects. Newly-named Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and DoH preparing guidance on the support of school age parents in education. DfES issued draft guidance on Sex and Relationship Education in schools. The Teenage Pregnancy Unit located in the DoH was set up to implement the strategy set out in the SEU report. New Minister for Youth ( see Minister for Young People 2000 ). In November launches national consultation to find out what young people think about voting - enabling children and young people to help shape government policy. Tomorrow's Future: Building a Strategy for Children and Young People (CYPU) details the new measures that will ensure young people have a voice in government and improved services to meet their need. Plans announced for a new Young People's Advisory Forum made up of young people aged 10-17 to advise the Minister for Young people direct. Listen-Up. The first Government report in which young people have spelt out the issues which matter to them. Education Secretary to introduce graduate tax ('graduate repayment') and to re-introduce student maintenance grants, from autumn 2003. Future graduates will be required to pay extra income tax for 20-25 years after leaving university once they begin to pay income tax at 22p. As a result the government may abolish student tuition fees - The Labour government is concerned that it may not reach their target of 50% of under-30s experiencing higher education by 2010. RESHUFFLE: Responsibility for adult work-based learning passed from TECs to the Employment Service and The Learning and Skills Council assumed its responsibilities.
2002 Changes are?
2003 Changes are?
2004 Changes are?
2005 Changes are?
2006 Changes are?
2007 Changes are?
2008 Changes are?
2009 Changes are? – To add – School testing periods shortened / University Standards questioned by Ministers – they cannot answer a simply question!.
National Curriculum and Ofsted Inspections of Schools- training insitutions such as MSCs and TECs could not address the problem of inconsistent curriculum standards in schools and many young people leaving schools with poor basic education.
21 05 2008 [ MSN ] NEW EDUCATIONAL DIPLOMAS
The diplomas, which combine theory with work experience, will mean that teenagers will have to travel for different classes between colleges, schools and employers. Schools Secretary Ed Balls has said he believes diplomas could replace A-levels and GCSEs as "the qualification of choice" for 14 to 19-year-olds in England. He has promised to review secondary school qualifications in 2013, leaving the diplomas to compete.
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